Tuesday, June 2, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËLife is full of riddles that only the dead can answer.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Ã¢â¬ËdeadÃ¢â¬â¢ are important to Ben OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s The Famished Road in a number of ways. His narrator Azuro is Ã¢â¬ËAbikuÃ¢â¬â¢; the Ã¢â¬ËspiritÃ¢â¬â¢ child of Yoruba mythology, predestined to an early death and connected to the Ã¢â¬Ëspirit worldÃ¢â¬â¢ by persistent and esoteric threads. Unlike the Christian Lazarus with whom his name is associated, Azaro does not undergo bodily resurrection but repeated death and re-birth. The cyclical nature of his existence is significant in that it allows OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative to span the Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËspiritÃ¢â¬â¢ worlds and the transitional space between the two. Thus, the novel sets up an intriguing paradigm of reality in which esoteric existence is afforded the same narrative significance as the newly independent Nigeria in which the novel is set. Yet, the novel also relies on Ã¢â¬Ëthe deadÃ¢â¬â¢ in a wider sense. OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s invocation of Nigerian mythology and paradigms of folklore constru cts an intriguing historicism as the narrative models of past generations are regenerated within his writing. This sense of transformation, or as Ato Quason suggests a Ã¢â¬Ëmythopoetic discourseÃ¢â¬â¢ denotes an intriguing interaction between tradition and innovation as Nigerian indigenous culture is reinvented by a Ã¢â¬Ëpost-modernÃ¢â¬â¢ text. This interaction is central to the narrative form of The Famished Road. Storytelling is at the heart of the novel and it evokes paradigms of folktales and orality with its limited first-person perspective and expressions of proverbial wisdom. The novelÃ¢â¬â¢s opening is formulaic; providing an invitation to be read that is characteristic of creationist myths; Ã¢â¬ËIn the beginning, there was a river. The river became a road and the road branched out into the whole world. And because the road was once a river, it was always hungry.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p3) The notion of a Ã¢â¬ËFamished RoadÃ¢â¬â¢ connects the novel to Nigerian mythology. As Ato Quayson points out, in southwestern Nigeria prayers are directed at the road Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦asking it not to swallow up suppliants on their journeys.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is furthered by the original source of the road as a Ã¢â¬ËriverÃ¢â¬â¢ as it forms a parallel with the Yoruba creation myth in which the universe begins in a transient and watery state as Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦the sky, the water and the marshland.Ã¢â¬â¢ Thus, OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s opening sentence engages with a wider sense of beginnings as it both signifies the start of the novel and indicates his conscious allusion to earlier modes of story telling within indigenous culture. The notion of a transmitting of story through the generations remains central to OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel as the narrative structure is interjected by oral storytelling. Towards the end of Book Three, the Ã¢â¬Ëfamished roadÃ¢â¬â¢ re-surfaces as the subject of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s story. The tale is performed in the dark, inaugurating a sensory shift as OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s setting is communicated through sound; Ã¢â¬ËThe chair creaked. Outside, a dog barked. An owl hooted.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p258) The inability of OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s characters to see clearly is important; it connects the story to the incantatory darkness of dreams and visions and allows the imagination free reign. Notably, the tale adheres to a folkloric paradigm; encompassing myth and symbol as the roadÃ¢â¬â¢s insatiable hunger is explained by the reduction of the Ã¢â¬ËKing of the RoadÃ¢â¬â¢ to a ravenous and growling Ã¢â¬ËstomachÃ¢â¬â¢ (261). The narrative opens with the stock phrase Ã¢â¬ËOnce upon a timeÃ¢â¬â¢ and conclude s with the proverbial Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦That is why there are so many accidents in the world.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p261) Strikingly, the opening and closing lines of OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel as a whole follow a similar pattern. Both its formulaic beginning and gnomic conclusion that Ã¢â¬ËA dream can be the highest point of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢(p500) connect the novel to oral modes of story telling suggests a continuance of oral tradition as the novel participates in the narrative culture that precedes it. Ato Quayson explores this participation in his 1997 study Strategic Transformations in Nigerian Writing. Quayson draws a parallel between OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative and Joseph MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of the narrative Ã¢â¬ËclichÃ ©sÃ¢â¬â¢ around which oral tales are structured. Thus, for Quayson, the novel constructs an Ã¢â¬Ëorality paradigm within the space of a literary oneÃ¢â¬â¢ as the conventions of oral story telling are re-invented within the modern form of the single narrative novel. This notion of dual narrative expectation is important as it points to an intriguing sense of historicism within OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. The symbiosis between the traditions of indigenous culture modern writing, indicate a movement away from a sequential, and essentially Western understanding of reality as Okri shows history to be active within the present. This is furthered by the glow from the AzuroÃ¢â¬â¢s FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËcigaretteÃ¢â¬â¢ that finally lights the darkness as the c onnection between of story and firelight further connects the narrative to the conventions of orality. Thus, Okri constructs a sense of a-temporality as the glow from a cigarette takes on the role of a communal fire. In this way, Okri is positioned as heir to indigenous Nigerian culture and mythology. However, whilst The Famished Road participates in paradigms of orality, it equally draws parallels with a more recent tradition of Nigerian literature; with the resurgence of folkloric paradigms and mythology following the writing of Amos Tutola and Wole Soyinka. Soyinka makes an explicit connection with the symbol of a Ã¢â¬ËfamishedÃ¢â¬â¢ road in Ã¢â¬ËDeath in the Dawn.Ã¢â¬â¢ The poem opens with a direct addressing to the reader; Ã¢â¬ËTraveler, you must set out / At dawn. And wipe your feet upon / The dog-nose wetness of the earth.Ã¢â¬â¢ The notion of origins is important here. As with the opening of The Famished Road, the line is tied up with journey and travel, suggesting both the Ã¢â¬Ëset[ting] outÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËTravelerÃ¢â¬â¢ and the beginnings of the poem. Since the first-person address places the reader as the Ã¢â¬ËTravelerÃ¢â¬â¢, the poem appears to suggest a narr ative course, engaging with the journey of writing and of being read. Strikingly, the Ã¢â¬ËwetnessÃ¢â¬â¢ of the earth suggests as similar state of flux to that indicated by the Ã¢â¬ËriverÃ¢â¬â¢ at the start of OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. This shared notion of a transformation from water to road is intriguing as it evokes a wider sense of cycles. Here, QuaysonÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of a Ã¢â¬Ëcommunally held cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ appears particularly apt as water always returns to a greater source. Quayson describes OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s own preoccupation of cycles of re-birth as influenced by SoyinkaÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of the Ã¢â¬ËAbiku.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is tempting to draw cultural significance from the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s shared tropes, especially when considering the further parallels that connect Okri with Tutuola. Just as Azuro begins his narrative around the age of seven, in The Palm-Wine Drinkard, the life-story of TutuolaÃ¢â¬â¢s unnamed narrator begins from when he is Ã¢â¬Ëabout seven years old.Ã¢â¬â¢ Thus, in connecting with the literature of both the past and th e present, Okri gives weight to the concept of a shared culture and transmitting of narrative material. Here, T.S. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s famous assertion that Ã¢â¬Ëmature poets stealÃ¢â¬â¢ appears particularly fitting. If, as Quayson suggests, Okri is orchestrating a duality between Ã¢â¬Ëan orality paradigm within the space of a literary oneÃ¢â¬â¢ then he is surely, participating in the kind of Ã¢â¬Ësteal[ing]Ã¢â¬â¢ advocated by Eliot. At the heart of this reading then, is the notion of transformation and community within shared culture the works of Ã¢â¬Ëdead poets and artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ are imbued with new significance and life. However, the polarities between The Famished Road and the writings of Tutuola and Soyinka must also be examined. As Derek Wright points out, The Famished Road is remote from the Ã¢â¬ËFolkloric dream-narratives of Amos TutuolaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ in that Okri Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦does not envisage his world as an imaginary mythic, metaphorical or parabolic constructÃ¢â¬â¢ but allows the Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËspiritÃ¢â¬â¢ worlds equal narrative status. This view is striking in that it emphases OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s paradigm of reality rather than his commitment to a continuance of indigenous culture. Okri warns us early on that Ã¢â¬Ëone world contains glimpses of othersÃ¢â¬â¢(p10) and in integrating the activity of spirits within the prosaic lives of his characters, he creates a narrative structure in which the real is a fluid and changeable concept rather than a fixed actuality. This notion is concretised by AzuroÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of a tribal mask in Book Three of The Famished Ro ad. The ease with which Okri shifts from the real to the surreal is striking as the candid simplicity of AzuroÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative allows him to look out Ã¢â¬Ëfrom its eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ (p244) and move into the realms of myth as he sees Ã¢â¬Ëa different worldÃ¢â¬â¢ (p245) Yet, what makes this passage so intriguing is the tone of normality created by OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s syntax. AzuroÃ¢â¬â¢s remark that Ã¢â¬ËI saw a tiger with silver wings and the teeth of a bullÃ¢â¬â¢ contains the same employment of verbs as Ã¢â¬ËI rested against a tree and shut my eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ (p244). This constructs a strange situation in which the mythological and the prosaic hold the same syntactic status; a balance compounded by the Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ that begins each sentence. The passage then is to do with perception; Azaro looks through the mask and accepts the mythological as part of his existence. His acceptance opposes the Enlightenment understanding of reality that Okri wishes to challenge as the sequential and temporal are discarded in favour of the esoteric. However, the passage also further connects OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s writing to indigenous culture. As Iris Andreski illustrates in her study of the life-stories of Ibibio women in Old WivesÃ¢â¬â¢ Tales, the co-existence of esoteric and physical worlds is an accepted norm in much of rural Nigeria. This is made clear in The Reluctant Sorceress in which the narrator recounts how Ã¢â¬ËDevil spirits drove me out of the house and into a thick forest for one yearÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ OkriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel can thus be seen as a mode of seeing that it not Eurocentric. The narrative displays a fascination with perspective and optics as the action is either captured by the incongruous perspective of the Abiku or from th e lens of the Ã¢â¬ËPhotographerÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ camera. Thus, the novel functions as a kind of literary mask through which the reader is able to glimpse Ã¢â¬Ëa different world.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p245) However, such a reading must be approached with caution if one is to avoid reconstructing a homogenous and essentially colonial perception of Ã¢â¬ËAfricaÃ¢â¬â¢ as a continent of myth and esoteric primitivism. The notion of an indigenous and non-sequential view of reality is appealing yet it denotes a level of otherness; an inability to see things in the same way. In his Modernism, Africa and the Myth of Continents, Jon Hegglund cites Conrad and Picasso as unintentionally active in the reduction of Ã¢â¬Ëthe diversity of a continent to a single abstraction.Ã¢â¬â¢ Since their route towards the Ã¢â¬Ëmodernist transformationÃ¢â¬â¢ ran Ã¢â¬Ëthrough AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢ Hegglund demonstrates their work as simplifying its cultural complexity. This movement from intricacy to generalized concept provides a note of caution when approaching Okri. The notion of a mythological pool from which the works of Okri, Soyinka and Tutuola are drawn is appealing in its invocation of shared story and transformation yet it risks falling into a similar, Westernised generalisation. It is vital to note that these writers are working in English. The Famished Road presents a connection with Nigerian tradition yet it is equally indicative of colonialism. Whilst the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning evokes the narrative clichÃ ©s demonstrated by Muller, it is also pseudo-Christian as Ã¢â¬ËriverÃ¢â¬â¢ replaces Ã¢â¬Ëthe WordÃ¢â¬â¢ of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel. This is furthered by the opening of the tale of the Ã¢â¬ËKing of the RoadÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËOnce upon a timeÃ¢â¬â¢ is an essentially European stock phrase. Thus, Okri is concerned with a wider process of metamorphosis. The novel involves a transformation of literary models as both Nigerian fo lklore and Western clichÃ ©s are reinvented by his narrative form, yet it also points to the cultural transformation of a country. Here, the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s setting takes on a greater significance as, despite its separation from the United Kingdom, Okri shows an absorption of Western influence within the language and story of Nigeria making the two collectively bound.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Introduction At any given time, there are approximately 2 million American citizens incarcerated and nearly 700,000 inmates returning to their communities each year. (Petitt Western, 2004; Western, 2001). Since most prisoners are eventually released, mass incarceration has in turn produced a steep rise in the number of individuals reentering society and undergoing the process of social and economic reintegration. (Travis, 2005). During the period between 1982 and 2007, the number of Americans incarcerated in jails and prisons increased by 274% (Pew Center on the States, 2009). In addition to the increase of the individuals incarcerated, there is an even larger amount of individuals under community supervision, with a recent study finding that one in every 48 American adults are either on probation or parole on any given day (Glaze Bonczar, 2011). Recent statistics show that the percentage of parolees re-incarcerated after release currently stands at 32% (Maruschak and Parks, 2012). The growing number of individuals exiting prison each year has prompted renewed interest among academics and policymakers in the challenges of reintegrating former prisoners into society (Visher Travis, 2003). The challenges of reentry appears to be daunting, as the prospects for successful reentry are often dim. More than 40 percent of those released return to prison within three years, a phenomenon known as the Ã¢â¬Å"revolving doorÃ¢â¬ (Pew Center on the States, 2011). This Ã¢â¬Å"revolving doorÃ¢â¬ is aShow MoreRelatedMass Incarceration And Its Effects On Society1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswidespread societal and economic damage caused by AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s now-40-year experiment in locking up vast numbers of its citizens. (The Editorial Board) The standard way of thinking about mass incarceration has it that mass incarceration is putting a stop to crimes. Today it has become common to dismiss the truth about mass incarceration. The Editorial Board of New York Times Magazine acknowledge that America`s imprisonment population has progressed to about 2.2 million (the Editorial Board). The Editorial BoardRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On Families, Communities, And Society1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespaved the way to create a cycle of endless incarceration for many people but especially for those of color. Such as the 1994 Violent Crime Control Act and the lack of substance abuse treatment in prisons. Overwhelmingly, mass incarceration has had a great impact on families, communities and society as a whole. As illuminated through the parable by inmate Joe Martinez, this continued cycling of inmates in and out of prison is devastating to the growth society. At the beginning of the parable theRead MoreThe Effects Of High Incarceration On The United States879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA. Societal Effects From Increasing Alienated Population The vast societal effects from mass incarceration have caused an increasingly alienated population to form in the U.S., which can be broadly classified in the dual areas of lasting effects and impacts to the family unit. First, the lasting effects of high incarceration rates are that they impact the rights of the convict, particularly African Americans. For example, noted civil rights attorney Michelle Alexander posits that the longRead MoreMass Incarceration802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesidentifies the racialized mass incarceration problem that we have in our criminal justice system. Reading the book, you can see that mass incarceration is a social problem. This means that the problem can follow the six stages of the policy process. If I were a claimsmaker, I could assert that mass incarceration is a problem by following the six stages. In the claimsmaking stage, I would claim that the War on Drugs creates the racialized mass incarceration in our society today. To show that we haveRead MoreCriminals Must Be Punished For Breaking The Laws Of The Land1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin which we discipline those who do not respect the law is vanishing. So, what will we do with criminals once all our jails exceed their maximum capacity? Those who break the law pose a danger to our society which is why we developed the system of incarceration. Jails have functioned in our society to protect citizens, or those who obey the constitution. For years, our jails were able to separate criminals from obedient citizens as well as punish criminals for their wrong doings. In the past, peopleRead MoreThe Division Of Our Society : Exploring Mass Imprisonment1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mass Incarceration The Division of Our Society: Exploring Mass Imprisonment Pamela D. Jackson WRIT 130: Research Paper Professor Jane Campanizzi-Mook September 11th 2015 ABSTRACT Prison is unfortunately big business in the United States and our society is paying the ultimate cost and there is only one system being rewarded. More than often we do not put much emphasis on the prison system in its entirety. It is a fairly simple concept to most Americans that if you commit a crime or ifRead MoreThe New Jim Crow By Michelle Alexander1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The New Jim Crow Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness examine the Jim Crow practices post slavery and the mass incarceration of African-American. The creation of Jim Crows laws where used as a tool to promote segregation among the minority and white American. Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass takes a look at Jim Crow laws and policies were put into place to block the social progression African-American from the post-slavery to the civilRead MoreThe New Jim Crow By Michelle Alexander1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The New Jim Crow Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness examine the Jim Crow practices post slavery and the mass incarceration of African-American. The creation of Jim Crows laws were used as a tool to promote segregation among the minority and white American. Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass takes a look at Jim Crow laws and policies were put into place to block the social progression African-American from the post-slavery to theRead MoreThe Basis for Cridme Deterren ce in the United States964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreaching consequences for criminal offenders and completely ignores the true goal of incarceration, to rehabilitate the offender for reintroduction into society. Mass incarceration as a means of criminal rehabilitation in the United States is extremely flawed. There are many far-reaching consequences of this practice that not only affects the incarcerated but larger society on a whole. The phrase mass incarceration, according to Oxford Encyclopedia, refers to Ã¢â¬Å"comparatively and historically extremeRead MoreThe Problem With Mass Incarceration1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Problem with Mass Incarceration Over the past few decades, the United States has witnessed a huge surge in the number of individuals in jail and in prison. Evidence suggests the mass imprisonment policy from the last 40 years was a horrible catastrophe. Putting more people in prison not only ruined lives, it disrupted families, prevented ex-prisoners to find housing, to get an education, or even a good job. Regrettably, the United States has a higher percent of its population incarcerated
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Americans in general look to superstars, athletes, and business moguls as the pinnacle of economic power, and hold them in great esteem for the amount of money they possess. We tend to see their success as the new Ã¢â¬ËAmerican DreamÃ¢â¬â¢ and strive to obtain what they have. However, while we know how the rich and well-to-do obtained their wealth, how do they manage to keep it? Why is it so difficult for the economically poor to change their fortune? Terry Pratchett utilized a character from his Diskworld series, Captain Samuel Vimes, to demonstrate out one of the key reasons that the wealthy manage to stay wealthy. Ã¢â¬Å"The reason that the rich were so rich, Vimes reasoned, was because they managed to spend less money. Take boots, for example.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After taking into account the value of all marketable assets, all debts, such as credit cards, mortgages, and others, are subtracted, yielding a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or familyÃ¢â¬â¢s net worth. Additionally, it is important to distinguish wealth from income. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s income is what is earned from any work they do, or services they provide. However, income is also derived from dividends or interest they earn from investments, or rent that may be paid to them from property they own. It is interesting to note that in 2008, there were 13,480 tax returns with a reported income of over $10 million. Ã¢â¬Å"Of the $400 billion in income reported on those 13,480 returns, only 19 percent of it came from wages and salaries, much less than came from capital gains, even in such a bad year for stocks.Ã¢â¬ (Norris, 2010) This report demonstrates that the majority of the wealthy in the United States do not Ã¢â¬ËworkÃ¢â¬â¢ for a living; rather they live off of the results of investments they have made. This fact also bring to light another question. Exactly how is wealth within the United States distributed amongst the population? The Congressional Budget Office prepared a report in 2016 titled Ã¢â¬ËTrends in Family Wealth, 1989 to 2013Ã¢â¬â¢. That report states the Ã¢â¬Å"aggregate family wealth in the United States was $67 trillion (or
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
On 2009, the Executive Director of the Asia Program at Human Rights Watch, says: Ã¢â¬Å"The criminal justice system remains plagued by forced confessions and tortureÃ¢â¬ ¦ However, it must be recognized that since 1979, when the former criminal procedure law was adopted, until the 2010Ã¢â¬â¢ exclusionary rules of illegally obtained evidence, and even more recently the draft of the Amendments to the Criminal Procedure Law of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China, China has been taking steps to major reforms. As some scholars stated, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system is a work in progress, and the purpose of this paper is to see how that progress is taking place with respect of prohibition of torture. In terms of law reforms, there have been major changes. For instance, in 1997 the shelter and investigationÃ¢â¬ was abolished.  Later on, in 2010, the exclusionary rules were enacted prohibiting the use of torture. However, the issue at stake is whether or not those laws have actually been implemented. We will write a custom essay sample on Prohibition of Torture and Exclusion of Illegally Obtained Evidence or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In 2010, in Henan province, Zhao Zuohai was released after spending eleven years in prison for a crime he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t commit; but was tortured and forced to self incriminate for. The guy he supposedly killed reappeared alive and the Government gave Zhao $96 000 as compensation.  Could that money compensate the torture he suffered and the fact that now his wife got remarried and his kids were adopted by the new husband? 6] On June this year, a draft of the amendments of the Criminal Procedural Law was submitted to the 11th National Peoples Congress (NPC) Standing Committee. In relation with the prohibition of torture and the exclusion of illegally obtained evidence, it states that: evidences and confessions collected by torture, violence, and threats should not be accepted.  Procuratorial organs should investigate allegations of collecting evidence through illegal methods, Ã¢â¬Å"Interrogators suspected to have collected confessions or evidence through illegal methods shoul d be criminally prosecuted. Ã¢â¬  It also states that: Ã¢â¬Å"all interrogations of suspects should be conducted in detention houses and the entire interrogation should be videotaped for the most serious criminal cases, according to the draft amendment. Ã¢â¬  This essay analyzes the path that China is taking in order to prohibit torture and to exclude illegally obtained evidence. The first part will bring a definition of torture as well as a description of torture and punishment in imperial China. The second part will analyze the current law and the draft of the Amendments of the Criminal Procedural Law with respect of torture. Third part describes a case of torture took place in China. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations will be given. 1. Definition of torture Article 1 of the Convention Against Torture (CAT) defines torture as: Ã¢â¬Å"Any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions. Ã¢â¬  According to this definition torture enclosures not only acts of confessions, but also punishment and discrimination. According to the China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS) torture is a serious violation of basic human rights and human being dignity which is intolerable under modern civilization and rule of law.  2. Background: Brief historical analysis of how torture was developed in China before 1979 It can be said that the use of torture in recent times reflects in certain way the vision of the past times. On the other hand, the major changes shows an intention of depart from those imperial practices.  Mainly, two schools of thought have influenced todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Chinese legal setting on punishment and torture: Confucianism and Legalism. Both of them, although with a different point of view came to the conclusion that punishment is an acceptable and in fact indispensable human institution.  For Confucius, the ruler must govern with Ã¢â¬Å"liÃ¢â¬ (rites) (modes of behavior) rather than governing in accordance with positive law and the threat of punishment. 15] According to him, the effect of punishment on society is negative and people will try to elude the rules and deceive the ruler. However, Confucius stated that punishments can be applied as a last resort when extraordinary circumstances occur. He recognized that there are some Ã¢â¬Å"evildoersÃ¢â¬ who cannot be affected by moral instruction and the only way to induce such persons to observe Ã¢â¬ liÃ¢â¬ is through punishment. So, punishment is appropriate for the correction of the incorrigible.  However, punishment has to be exactly right. Punishment can never be just, they can only be right.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Leading Life With Smiles On the Face Do you ever know that what makes life joyful, happy or even full of pleasure? Smiling is the answer. Instead of showing a gloomy face, why don?t we begin our everyday lives with a warmhearted smile? It will certainly make our lives much better and wonderful. Smiling indicates a sign of happiness on us. Smiling not only shows that we are contented, it will also make other people feel blissful and relaxed. In fact, there is one famous quote created by an American inspirational writer, H. Jackson Brown, Jr. about smile., that is ?Today, give a stranger one of your smiles. It might be the only sunshine he sees all day?. When we smile at somebody, they might even smile back at us. Smiling simply means that we are delighted, and by showing others our cheery grin will certainly make all lives happy. Therefore, smiling will make others put a grin on their faces. Life seems to be full of obstacles and hardship. Smiling is the ultimate solution to work out the problem. Smiling makes you look successful indeed. Smiling will also grant you the feeling of hope and faith, as smiling can fill you up with the strength and confident to survive. Hence, be sure to show your smiley face, especially when you meet a disheartened person. This will be the best cure for them. Besides that, do not feel depressed even when you face difficulties. As the saying goes, ?there is always light at the end of the tunnel?. In fact, you should just smile and problems might become simpler. Also, there is a saying that goes, ?A smile can brighten the darkest sky?. Thus, smiling definitely makes you look at the brighter side of a bad situation. An amiable grin will absolutely place you in a positive position all over the place. Smiling shows that you are a friendly person and it also gives you a child like innocence. Furthermore, with a smiley face, you will be more contagious to the people around you. Two persons will get closer to each other when they start to smile at each other. You look gracious when you smile and thus, people will like to stay together with you. In addition, smiling is important in bringing the whole world together. An American philosopher, Max Eastman says that, ?a smile is the universal welcome?. For that reason, all people in the world should smile everyday to ensure world peace, as peace begins with smile. Lastly, smiling prolongs life. Smiling relieves all the tensions and pressures in lives, thus causing us to feel relieved. Getting angry for the whole time will surely disrupt our nervous systems and this results in the shortening of lifespan. Smiling functions as a natural drug that eases all pains without producing negative offshoots. It is believed that smiling can get rid of feeling of annoyance and promotes human flourishing. Moreover, smiling builds up attractive and appealing looks. Research actually shows that smiling also makes us look younger. Next, smiling tends to adjust our moods. We will feel better when we smile and we can have a good mood. As a result, we should always put a smile on our face to ensure a healthy lifestyle. In a nutshell, we should lead our lives with smiles on our face. We must not hesitate to smile at other people since smiling is a virtuous act. Life is just the resemblance of a mirror, we will always end up getting the greatest consequences when we smile at it. Therefore, let us smile together till the end of the world.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Inferno and Infernal Inferno and Infernal Inferno and Infernal By Maeve Maddox When I see the word inferno, I think fire, but originally, the word did not carry the connotation of intense heat. The association with burning derives from beliefs taught by some religions about the afterlife. The OED offers only one definition of inferno: Hell; a place of torment or misery compared to hell; a place likened in some respect to the Inferno of Dantes Divine Comedy. Merriam-Webster offers three definitions of inferno: 1. a place or a state of torment and suffering. 2. a place that resembles or suggests hell in being dark, noisy, chaotic, lawless. 3. intense heat. English speakers, British as well as American, use inferno to mean an intense conflagration: Tracking the inferno: where wildfires are hitting California, other states hardest- The Guardian. Scientists find planets that survived red giant inferno- The London Times. Thirty people feared dead and 40 more injured after shopping centre inferno causes mall to collapse in RussiaÃ - The Daily Mail. Multiple fire departments reported to the scene of the inferno just after 7 p.m. Sunday, and spent nearly the next 12 hours battling the blaze.- Galloway Patch (New Jersey). Small Fire Becomes Inferno, Burning Homes in California- New York Times.Ã Like inferno, the adjective that derives from it, infernal, refers to the realm of the dead or a place of punishment after death: Paradise LostÃ opens with the fallen angels in hell. Mammon proposes that they build an infernal kingdom of their own, imitating the majesty of heaven through the material riches of the kingdom of hell. Infernal is commonly used as a synonym for hellish, damnable, damned, diabolical, and fiendish. Here are some examples: City Tells Ice Cream Trucks To Keep That Infernal RacketÃ Down When will these so-called Ã¢â¬Å"votersÃ¢â¬ stop with their infernal meddling? Will you stop with your infernal fear-mongering? Gatlin and his ilk have brought not only themselves down with their infernal liesÃ but the whole athletics community. I turned my eye towards him and immediately caught his eye, which he kept staring upon me for more than a minute, with the most infernal expression I have ever seen upon a human face. An Ã¢â¬Å"infernal machineÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"a machine or apparatus maliciously designed to explode and destroy life or property, especially one in the form of something harmless. For example: To greet the Princes return to Sofia this month, the Chief of the Russian Secret Police sent him anÃ infernal machine disguised as aÃ box of the finest cigars.- Sherlock Holmes and The Case of The Bulgarian Codex, Tim Symonds, 2012. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:15 Terms for Those Who Tell the FutureUse a Dash for Number RangesUsing "May" in a Question
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Should individuals be allowed to sell their organs on the open market in the U.S - Research Paper Example Those improvements would increase the number of lives saved. Putting a social priority in place and imposing regulations that require donation when possible will help to increase the number of patients saved by organ donation. In addition, opening the avenue of commerce for body part sales from live donors will allow for more lives to be saved when the social concept that it is unethical is removed. The integrity of the medical community is one of the primary concerns in the idea of making medical care subject to commerce. However, the United States already limits health care to those who can afford it. Therefore, selling organs in an open, but controlled market is not against the ethics of the medical community and will allow for more patients to receive the treatment that they need in order to promote longer, healthier lives. Organ transplants: Selling body parts for profit Organ transplants depend upon donations from the loved ones of people who have died or the loved ones of thos e who need an organ that can be taken from a live donor with still preserving that life. Blood can be donated in bulk along with plasma. Sometimes blood banks pay for donations of blood. However, selling organs is strictly forbidden, thus contributing to a burdened system that has long lists of people in need of transplants. When discussing the sale of organs, the issues that prevent this from occurring are based upon ethical standards of practice. These ethics are put into place for a reason; however, framing the issue differently might provide an ethical way in which to encourage more available organs while still preserving the integrity of the medical industry. Examining the topic of organ donation requires studying health behaviors. Health is a social issue, the ways in which health issues managed part of a social construction of behaviors in which medical personnel and patients interact towards defining the experience of illness and disease (Siegel and Alvaro 4). While the medi cal science provides treatments for health issues, society creates structures for administering those treatments. The frustration that many patients have is that there is treatment available, but the necessary components needed, whether that be federal laws, money, or medical materials, are not available. At this point, the social system reveals one of its flaws. In the case of organ donation, the lists are much longer than the availability of the required organs. Thus, the drive for organ donation becomes vital in providing the quantity of organs needed to save those that are suffering from various diseases. When considering all types of transplants, including tissue transplants, the chances of a person needing some form is one in two people (Institute of Medicine Committee on Rates of Organ Donation, 2006, p. 293). According to UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) (2011), the total number of people who are active on the organ transplant list is 72,260 with 110,624 total on the list as of 2:07pm on April 1, 2011. The difference is caused by those who are on the list, but who are inactive because they have become medically ineligible, either temporarily or permanently. From January to December of 2010, there were 28,664 transplants from 14,506 donors (UNOS). This difference reveals a disparity between the number of available organs to the actual need. In Africa, Asia, Europe and South America, the commercialization of organ transplants occurs, with renal transplants being one of the more commonly sold form of